Citing A Tweet In Mla Style
Now, lets not forget about the MLA stylebook, which is a source of concern for every freshman general studies student. The username of the person or company who posted a tweet must be included in the in-text reference for a tweet in MLA style:
The complete source details are then included in the cited list of your paper.
Instagram Photo Or Video
Begin with Author and/or . In quotations, list the title or caption of the photo. If title is not given, write a brief description of the picture, but do not place it in quotation marks. Followed by, , and then add the date posted and URL.
Author Surname, Given Name or Account Name . Photo Title or Description., other contributors , day month year of post, URL.
National Geographic . Photo of a panther. , photographed by Carlton Ward, 16 June 2018, www.instagram.com/p/BkFfT9xD6h6/?taken-by=natgeo.
How Do I Cite A Twitter Thread Or Conversation In My Text And In My Works
Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook. For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook.
A thread is a series of separately written but related tweets that are given a single URL. If youre discussing the thread as a whole , treat the thread as a collaborative work. As always, follow the MLA format template.
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Citing A Twitter Profile In Apa Style
In case you need to reference a Twitter profile, rather than a single post, simply replace the date with n.d. in the reference list. Using Encyclopaedia Britannica as an example, the citation entry would be formatted as follows:
Encyclopaedia Britannica . . Tweets . Twitter. Retrieved February 14, 2022, from https://twitter.com/Britannica
How To Cite Wikipedia In Mla Format
Writing an academic paper or professional report requires you to cite verified and authoritative sources. Unlike primary and secondary sources, Wikipedia is considered a tertiary source since its information is written and edited by its own users. At any point, a user can modify a Wikipedia entry with misinformation or omit information altogether.
Therefore, professors advise against exclusively using Wikipedia for your research. However, using it as a starting point has become an increasingly acceptable practice, as developed Wikipedia entries often have a list of references to original, credible sources that you can explore in more depth.
If youre allowed to use Wikipedia as a source, there are citation format nuances to be aware of. The MLA format for citing Wikipedia includes the following elements: the title of the entry , container name, publisher, last updated date, and permalink.
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Streaming Video From A Library Database
“Title of Video.” Publisher/Production Company, Date. Title of Library Database.
|Works Cited List Example|
Note: Because videos do not have page numbers this information is left out of the in-text citation.
Note: While MLA 8th edition recommends including URLs, Seneca Libraries recommends that URLs be left out when citing a work found in a library database. Because library databases require a login most URLs will stop working after the session ends.
How To Correctly Cite A Tweet In Apa And Mla Style
You never know where youll find a good piece of information on the web with all the rapidly developing markets nowadays. You can even discover data related to your research on Twitter. So how do you reference a tweet in a research paper as a professional essay writer? Keep reading to find out how to reference a tweet in APA or MLA style.
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What Elements To Give In A Bibliographic Reference
The contents of a bibliographic reference to a tweet and of an appropriate in-text citation depend on the rules of the particular citation style that you are using for compiling your bibliography. However, most often, a reference to a Twitter post should contain the following elements:
- name of the author of the tweet and/or their unique nickname
- text of the tweet/first words/description of the tweets contents
- publication date
- title of the social media Twitter
- URL of the post and date accessed.
In addition, some citation styles may require indicating the type of file attached to the post.
Citing A Twitter Profile In Apa
If you want to cite a Twitter profile instead of a single tweet, the citation in the text is the same, except you replace the date with n.d. Using ScienceDaily as an example, youd format the reference list entry like this:
ScienceDaily . . Tweets . Twitter. Retrieved January 18, 2022, from https://twitter.com/ScienceDaily
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Streaming Video From A Website
Last Name, First Name of video creator or Username of Creator. “Title of Video.” Title of the Hosting Website, uploaded by Username, Day Month Year of Publication, URL of video. Accessed Day Month Year video was viewed.
|Works Cited List Example|
Sethi, Ramit. “How to Write a Winning Resume, With Ramit Sethi.” , uploaded by I Will Teach You to Be Rich, 23 June 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0fjkKCsM1w. Accessed 28 June 2016.
Note: If the video creator is unknown, begin the citation with the title of the video.
|In-Text Citation Example|
Note: Cite the relevant hour, minute and seconds as displayed in your media player.
For more information on citing videos found online, check out the MLA website.
How To Cite Tweets
The education and research community follows a set of guidelines and formatting rules like the MLA Style and the APA Style – to properly cite original sources in their writing and these style guides do offer guidance on citing tweets as well.
The APA Style recommends the following format :
TWITTER_HANDLE. . TWEET_TEXT . Retrieved from TWEET_URL
The MLA Style recommends a slightly different format:
USER_FULL_NAME . TWEET_TEXT TWEET_DATE, TWEET_TIME. Tweet.
There are a couple of important differences in the two formats.
The APA Style recommends including the Tweet URL and only the date of the tweet in the citation.
The MLA Style recommends adding the authors real name in the citation as well as their Twitter handle. It also suggests including the date and time of the tweet in the citation and it should reflect the readers time zone. The idea is that using a consistent time-zone will help future researchers to precisely compare the timing of tweets as long as the tweets are all read in a single time zone.
I do however find it strange that the MLA style neither includes the Tweet URL nor the Tweet ID in the citation. Without this information, it will be difficult for researchers to fetch the original tweet from Twitter as search engines like Google arent very good at digging old tweets.
What Is A Tweet And What Are Its Specifics
A tweet is a type of post published on the social media network Twitter.
The main characteristic of tweets is their short length. As of today, the maximum length of a Twitter post is 280 characters, while it used to be 140 characters a few years ago.
Tweets often feature hashtags and emojis. They can have attached images, audio and video files, hyperlinks with thumbnails, etc.
How To Cite A Tweet In Apa Style
Published on November 6, 2020 by Jack Caulfield. Revised on June 16, 2022.
APA 7th edition
To reference a tweet in APA Style, include the authors name and username, the date the tweet was posted, the text of the tweet in italics, Tweet in square brackets, Twitter, and the URL.
For tweets longer than 20 words, only include the first 20 in your reference.
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How To Cite A Book With Multiple Authors In Mla Format
You can reference a work with more than one author by reworking the author element of the citation. For a book citation with two authors, use the following format:
Last name, First name, and First name Last name. Book title. Publishers name,
Citing a book with two authors looks like this:
Cohn, Rachel, and David Levithan. Dash & Lilys Book of Dares. Ember
Publishing House, 2011.
For an in-text citation, include the last names of both authors, separated by the word and, followed by the page number. These elements should be enclosed in parentheses:
The author format also changes when youre citing a book with three or more authors. In this scenario, include the name of the first author listed in the book, followed by et al. to denote that multiple authors contributed to the work. Below is an example of this type of book citation in MLA format:
Last name, First name, et al. Book title. Publishers name, Publication date.
Below is an example of a citation for a book authored by three or more individuals:
Heffernan, James, et al. Writing: A College Handbook. 5th ed., W. W. Norton &
An in-text citation of a book with more than three authors is similar to that of a book with two authors. The difference is that instead of including all the authors last names, you include only the first authors last name, followed by et al.:
How To Cite A Book In Mla Format
When citing a book in MLA format, include the authors name, the title of the book, the publishers name, publication date, and sometimes the place of publication. The way you cite a book using MLA format can vary depending on the type of work youre citing.
For example, an e-book citation requires additional elements, like the source URL. The format for citing a textbook with multiple authors also varies from a standard MLA book citation. Referencing classical works that dont have a definitive publication date or author, like the Bible, also requires a different approach.
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How To Cite Wikipedia In Mla Style
Since there are multiple users that have contributed to the page, omit the author element that would usually start a standard MLA citation. Instead, begin the entry on your works cited page with the Wikipedia page name in quotation marks.
For the container name, use Wikipedias full name. Heres what a Wikipedia citation looks like in MLA format:
Page name. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Day
Month Year last updated, permalink.
Citing A Tweet By Organization In Mla Style
In-text citation template and example:
As seen in this twitter thread
Works cited entry template and example:
Organization or Account Name . Tweet text or Description. Twitter, Date, URL.
NewsToday . High precision atomic clock is here. Twitter, 28 Dec. 2018, twitter.com/ntbureau/high-precision-atomic-clock-is-here/.
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Citing Protected Tweets Or Dms
Some content on Twitter is private: tweets from protected accounts and DMs from any account. Because the reader wont be able to access this content, it should be cited as personal communications.
Personal communications dont appear in your reference list. Just refer to them in parentheses in the text, giving the date of the communication. You can specify the format or just write personal communication.
How To Cite A Movie In Mla Format Using An Alternative Version
If youre using an alternative version of the film, such as a directors cut, mention the version after the contributors and before the production company for the works cited page. You do not need to mention the version in the in-text citation.
Movie title. Directed by Directors Name, type of contribution by Additional
Contributors Names, version, Production Company, Year of release.
Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Rings. Directed by Peter Jackson,
extended cut, New Line Cinema / WingNut Films, 2001.
Notice how multiple production companies are separated by a forward slash.
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How To Cite A Tweet In Mla
Last name, First name . Tweet Message.Twitter, date posted, URL.
Note: When the account name and username are similar, the username can be excluded from the citation. For example, if the accounts username was @FirstNameLastName or @OrganizationName.
Works cited example:
Timberlake, Justin . USA! USA!!!, 16 June 2014, twitter.com/jtimberlake/status/478689830667186176
In-text citation example:
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Frequently Asked Questions About Apa Style Citations
- When should I include an access date in an APA citation?
However, if you are citing a website or online article thats designed to change over time, its a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html
- How do I cite a source with no author in APA Style?
When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organizatione.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a companys websiteuse the organizations name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations.
When no author at all can be determinede.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymouslyuse the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
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How To Cite A Tweet With The Chicago Manual Of Style
Next, let’s look at what the authoritative Chicago Manual of Style says:
For bibliography entries, start with the author of the post , followed by their user name in parentheses. Next, include up to 160 characters, including the spaces of the text, in quotation marks. Lastly, add the name of the serviceTwitterfollowed by the date, time, and URL, in that order. For example:
deGrasse Tyson, Neil . “You can’t use reason to convince anyone out of an argument that they didn’t use reason to get into.” Twitter, Sept 29, 2020, 10:15 pm. .
When creating a footnote entry, switch the order of the author’s name and use commas instead of periods to separate the major sections of your footnote. Otherwise, continue with the same steps as above. For example:
1. Neil deGrasse Tyson , “You can’t use reason to convince anyone out of an argument that they didn’t use reason to get into,” Twitter, Sept 29, 2020, 10:15 pm, .
Basic Elements Of The Citation
To cite material posted on a social media platform, follow the MLA format template. List the author of the post, usually the account name, followed by the title of the material or a description in place of a title in the Title of Source element. Then list the title of the social media site in the Title of Container element. Next list the publisher, unless the name of the sites publisher is essentially the same as the website title. Then provide the date of publication of the postif givenor the copyright date of the page. Finally, list the URL in the Location element. As always, key your in-text reference to the first element of the entry. The in-text reference may appear in prose or parentheses.
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How To Cite A Website In Mla: Pages Articles And Blogs
Web pages, articles, and blogs are cited using the same formula as above. However, if your source also has information about editions , volumes , or issue numbers as is the case with scholarly journalsits good to include those as well. If the source has a print version, you may also include the page numbers .
If you pull the source from a container or host site, its best to include its name after the website name and version information but before the URL. The complete formula looks like this:
Last name, First name of author. Page or article title in quotations. Website or
, ed. #, vol. #, no. #, Day Month Year of publication, pp.
##. Container,URL. Accessed Day Month Year.
Keep in mind that some information, such as editions or issue numbers, might not apply to your source. If so, simply skip them when writing your bibliography. You can also do this for month and/or day of publication dates that arent listed.
Also notice that containers are preceded by periods and not commas, unlike some other elements in MLA references. Heres a real-life example of how to cite a website in MLA format when it has this additional information:
Aimone, Francesco. The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in New York City: A Review of
the Public Health Response. Public Health Reports, vol. 125, April 2010, pp.
7179. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41435301. Accessed 4 May 2022.
Tweets In An Apa Reference List
This is the format for citing a tweet in an APA reference list:
Name, Initials . . Exact wording of tweet up to a maximum of 20 words . Twitter. URL
Following this pattern, our example above would look like this in the reference list:
ScienceDaily . . Giraffes are as socially complex as elephants, study finds //dlvr.it/S6cgg4 . Twitter. https://twitter.com/ScienceDaily/status/1432419496338214912
All links in the first 20 words of the tweet should be included in a reference list. You should put square brackets before the tweet if it has an image, video, or thumbnail .
The first 20 words of the tweet should be exactly as they appear online. This means you must include all non-standard spelling and capitalization as well as hashtags, links, and even emojis. If you cant recreate an emoji, you should include its name . When counting 20 words, note that emojis, hashtags, and links each count as one word.
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