How Large Are Server Rooms Inside Data Centers
We can only guess how large the average server room is inside of a data center because companies typically dont disclose this information. For purposes of estimating how much servers are in a reputable data center, we will assume that data centers are trying to maximize server room space.
Of course, a data center needs offices for executives, system administrators and security. They also need a cafeteria and/or leisure spaces for their employees. Data centers typically exist on the outskirts of populated areas, so they might compensate for traveling distance with nice amenities.
There is also space-hogging infrastructure that is necessary to maintain a functioning cluster of servers. This infrastructure mostly consists of HVAC systems and power distribution hardware.
So, for the purposes of estimating an average, we will assume that 65 percent of the total square footage of a data center consists of the floor tiles that make up a server room.
How Many Servers Do I Need
It sounds like such a simple question and it is asked by almost every new customer we engage. In reality, answering this can get complex quickly, however there are a few basic ways to get some quick estimates. What we are really talking about here is Capacity Planning. As a more general reference on the subject of planning for scalable websites you could take a look at many of the books out there, one now older but still great reference is Cal Hendersons Building Scalable Websites.
Before setting out we should clarify that at migenius we are typically working with websites and applications with very different compute requirements to your average website. Normally servers are used for serving pages, database operations, perhaps running search engines and other tasks that would occupy only a small portion of any servers resources when servicing a single users requests.
In stark contrast, the portion of a website using our technology is usually associated with , an extremely complex and compute-intensive operation. To get the speed needed migenius utilises NVIDIA Iray and servers with NVIDIA GPU hardware, making these deployments quite atypical in the world of web application development.
Estimate Your Compute Requirements
What is compute? Compute, also known as computing power, refers to CPU and RAM performance. In cloud computing, there are terms like vCPU and Cores. We will discuss those briefly as well. For more information, visitor our past blog on the top 20 cloud terminology and definitions.
Determine Number of Virtual Machines
There are no strict guidelines on the number of VMs that you can run on a cloud server. However, some recommendations include using about 15 VMs per instance. You could also go to 48 per instance or even as high as 150 to 200 VMs per instance. It really depends on the server. The risk of placing too many VMs on a cloud server instance is that if the server goes down, you could lose all of your VMs at once.
It really comes down to high-availability architecture. The number of VMs are really dependent on the underlying hypervisor and hardware.
How do you size your VM appropriately? One thing is for sure. Adding unnecessary vCPUs can hurt your consolidation ratio. Overprovisioning vCPUs can cause ready time to spike and hurt performance.
You have to look at the performance metrics of the workload. As a rule of thumb, if the application is no multi-threaded and peak CPU demand is below 3,000MHz, provision a single vCPU.
Determine the Amount of RAM
Determine Volume Requirements
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Select The Maximum Number Of Simultaneous Users
Now this part can be tricky, particularly since it really depends on whether you have any information from an existing application or website you can use, or if you need to try and make an educated guess based on what you know about your application. This number, however, is also one of the most important, so you should do whatever you can to make a good estimate.
If you do have an existing website with a lot of traffic, your web analytics can help a lot in identifying usage patterns that can lead you to an accurate estimate. Usually your compute-intensive application will only be a small portion of what is done on your website, so you should be careful not to just look at things like monthly unique visitors, since this will lead to greatly overestimating the traffic that would reach your application.
You will also need to decide at this stage whether to plan for the peak or the average. If you want to plan for the peak then you may obviously end up with a lot of unused hardware capacity during non-peak times. The flip side is if you plan for the average peaks will generally overwhelm your resources and some users are going to miss out.
If you are deploying a system with the ability to scale up and down the resource allocation, you can potentially avoid being caught out without enough resources if you are able to detect when the peaks are coming before they arrive. Auto-scaling is topic for another post, however it is well-supported by most cloud providers.
How Do Data Centers Work
Data Centers are used to protect the performance of network security and application delivery assurance. The network security includes firewall and intrusion protection to guard the data center, while the application delivery ensures that the data assurance does not fail and maintains application performance.
Need Help We Provide Cloud Migration And Management
We provide the largest selection of cloud infrastructure services including cloud migration, cloud management, and cloud optimization for single or multi-cloud deployments. We also provide access to the largest selection of colocation data centers plus interconnection and networking services. Let us help you build your hybrid IT infrastructure today. Contact me to learn more.
Gerald Romano is an industry veteran supporting Datacenter clients for over 15 years. Expertise in Co-lo/DR/Redundancy, Cloud-Based Services, AWS/Azure/Google, and Managed Services. Romano’s skill set also includes emerging technologies like IoT, Blockchain, and AI. He helps define options for optimum network technology based on customer requirements and generating ROI. The goal is to help companies be more productive while increasing shareholder value.
Instagram Architecture & Database How Does It Store & Search Billions Of Images
is the most popular photo-oriented social network on the planet today. With over a billion users, it has become the first choice for businesses to run their marketing campaigns on.
This write-up is a deep dive into its platform architecture & addresses questions like what technologies does it use on the backend? What are the databases that the platform leverages? How does it store billions of photos serving millions of QPS queries per second? How does it search for content in the massive data it has? Lets find out.
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How To Determine Your Cloud Server Requirements
You may be new to everything that is the cloud. However, that shouldnt stop you from deploying your website, application, or platform to a public or private cloud server. Its true that the cloud can be intimidating. There is cloud terminology such as vCPU, Cores, RAM, GPU, IOPS, throughput, and bandwidth. Where do you begin?
In this article, Ill examine the basics of configuring a cloud server and how to determine your requirements. We will run through some hypothetical examples of applications, traffic, and the corresponding cloud server requirements. One of the beautiful things about the cloud is that it is highly scalable. This means that you can start small and scale as need on-demand.
Make sure to check out the Datacenters.com Cloud Server Configurator!
How Many Servers Does My Business Need
For companies seeking servers for limited uses, one server may be all you need. For instance, if you’re looking for an easy way to share documents with the office, but have hosted email and website storage, then one server may be enough. It may even be enough for email and shared drives. However, this depends on the size of storage needed and the amount of email coming in. It may be that, with higher email volumes, you may want a separate server. This is especially true for companies that might be working with public records, where storing emails for a period of time may be required by law.
However, this also changes when it comes to who your web hosting provider is. Is your web host off site, or do you want it in house? If you want it in house, you may want a separate server, especially to minimize potential problems with other server resources when accessing the website, and to minimize potential data theft in the case of a hacking intrusion.
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How Many People Work At Discord
300 employees work at Discord. The average salary is $131,679. Among employees on an H1-B visa, the median salary is $180,000.
Thats it for my collection of Discord stats in 2021. The platform has taken off recently, diversifying beyond gamers to a wider audience.
Thanks in part to its user growth, Discord has doubled its valuation in six months. It will be interesting to see what the future holds for the platform.
Now Im curious to hear from you:
Do you have any queries or remarks about any of the figures included here? Do you think something is missing from this Discord stats roundup?
Dont hesitate to let me know in the comments section below.
Run Tests On The Representative Data On The Base Hardware Configuration
Once you have your hardware, dataset, performance level and simultaneous users, you need do some test runs and measure the performance and utilisation. Here is a typical sequence you might go through.
At each step you should review the performance achieved and stop at the point where it goes below your defined Minimum Acceptable Performance. Then take the count of simultaneous users from the previous run and that will be the number of users your base hardware configuration can support. Well call that Users per Server.
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Estimate Your Bandwidth Requirements
You can use tools like Solarwinds Pingdom to test your application if it is live in production. You can also use tools like Calculator.net to calculate your monthly bandwidth usage and speed requirements.
What information do you need about your application to calculate monthly bandwidth usage and speed requirements? You will need the following or at least make some assumptions.
Monthly Data Transfer:
- Average Number of Page Views Per Visitor
- Average Monthly Page Views
- Average Page Size
- Redundant Factor
For this example, lets assume that you will reach 500,000 visits per month. Each visitor will view an average of four pages per visitor. The data transfer will be an average of 2 Megabytes per page.
Keep in mind that search engine bots can have an impact on your data transfer. Bots often consume more data than typical users based on the fact that they visit most or all of your indexable pages on your application.
- ~500,000 Visits/Month
- = 4,000 GB/Month
Bandwidth Speed Requirements
Your bandwidth speed requirements are based on the amount of data transfer per month. That is the number we calculated above. Again, you will want to use the Calculator.net tool to input monthly usage in Bytes , Kilobytes , Megabytes , Gigabytes , or Terabytes . This will give you the equivalent of bandwidth required in Megabits/s or Gigabits/s . See the example above using data transfer that we already calculated.
- 4,000 GB
- 12.17 Mbps
Finding Servers Per Data Center With Data Center Square Footage
In the last section, we discussed how floor tiles take up 4 sq ft of space and that a typical server room might consist of 65 percent of the total data center square footage.
To calculate how many servers are in a high tier data center, we will use Googles Pryor Creek data center in Oklahoma. This data center is 980,000 sq ft according to DataCenter Knowledge, but Google does not disclose the size themselves.
This is a good example of a high tier data center because it is quite a bit more small than the largest data center, Switch in Tahoe NV, which is 7.2 million sq ft, but larger than a more common 300,000 sq ft data center.
To make this math a bit more easy, lets round up to 1 million square feet.
Total sq ft: 1,000,000
Server room as percentage of total square footage: 1,000,000 * .65 = 650,000 sq ft
Tiles in the server room: 650,000 / 4 = 162,500 tiles
Ratio of occupied tiles vs blank tiles: 28 / 44 = .636
Total occupied tiles vs total tiles in server room: 162,500 * .636 = 103,409 occupied tiles
Average sized rack U height vs occupied tiles: 52 / 2 = 26 * 103,409 = 2,688,636 1U servers
With this math, we estimate that in a 1 million sq ft data center with 65% of the site being used for servers using only 52U racks, there can be 2,688,636 1U servers, 1,344,318 2U servers or 896,212 3U servers.
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How Many Small Business Servers Do I Need
Small business servers are a must have for companies trying to keep up to date with the ongoing technology needs of a small business. Servers encourage collaboration, enhance record keeping, facilitate easier communication and generally make things easier. With shared drives, there’s no need to hassle with email attachment limits and other problems along the way.
Load Balancing And Front
For any reasonably sized application with a decent user base you will likely have multiple servers. We havent yet talked about how you will actually spread the load around those multiple servers. This topic is too detailed to cover here and we will look deeper into this separately and specifically for RealityServer which has specific features for interacting with load balancers.
Just keep in mind that in addition to your server managing the compute load, you will also need to think about having something that sits in front of these to manage traffic and who uses what resources. This is typically done with a load balancer such as haproxy, or if you are using AWS, their offering. Usually you will need at least 1-2 extra servers at least for this purpose, but fortunately they dont need to be too powerful unless you have a very large number of backend servers to manage.
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Getting The Simultaneous User Count
We glossed over the estimation of simultaneous users fairly quickly, but this really is a complex question and something you should think about carefully before making your estimates. When we ask customers for this data to help them with their planning, the first response is often to provide the monthly unique visitor count for the site, which is a popular metric.
These numbers are typically very large, even for a moderately successful B2C site it is likely to be on the order of 40,000 and for large brands its not uncommon to see millions of unique visitors each month. This metric is a good starting point if its all you have, however it would be better if you have information on how many of those users get past the first page and start interacting with your site it will be better though.
What you need to do is really drill down on how many of the users that come to your site are likely to get far enough into the site to interact with the compute-intensive part of your application. For a custom apparel site, for example, the customer usually needs to browse categories and then available products to make a selection they want to customise, and this process alone will usually filter out a huge number of those initial users.
How Does Instagram Runs A Search For Content Through Billions Of Images
Instagram initially used Elasticsearch for its search feature but later migrated to Unicorn, .
Unicorn powers search at Facebook & has scaled to indexes containing trillions of documents. It allows the application to save locations, users, hashtags etc & the relationship between these entities.
Speaking of the Instas search infrastructure it has denormalized data stores for users, locations, hashtags, media etc.
These data stores can also be called as documents, which are grouped into sets to be processed by efficient set operations such as AND-OR& NOT
The search infrastructure has a system called Slipstream which breaks the user uploaded data, streams it through a Firehose& adds it to the search indexes.
The data stored by these search indexes is more search-oriented as opposed to the regular persistence of uploaded data to PostgreSQL DB.
Below is the search architecture diagram
If you arent aware of Hive, Thrift, Scribe. Do go through this write-up. It will give you an insight into how Facebook stores user data.
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What Technology Does Instagram Use On The Backend
The server-side code is powered by Django Python. All the web & async servers run in a distributed environment & are stateless.
The below diagram shows the architecture of Instagram
The backend uses various storage technologies such as Cassandra, PostgreSQL, Memcache, Redis to serve personalized content to the users.